Sri Lanka’s documented history spans three,000 years, with proof of prehistoric human settlements qualitative analysis back a minimum of a hundred twenty five,000 years. it’s an expensive cultural heritage, and therefore the 1st legendary Buddhist writings of country, the Pāli Canon, originate to the Fourth Buddhist council in twenty nine before Christ. Its geographic location and deep harbours created it of nice strategic importance from the time of the traditional Silk Road through to the trendy Maritime Silk Road. Its location as a significant commerce hub created it legendary to each the region likewise because the European continent from as way back because the Anuradhapura amount. The country’s trade luxury product and spices attracted traders of the many nations, making Sri Lanka’s numerous population. throughout a amount of nice political crisis the Portuguese, whose arrival in country was for the most part accidental, wanted to regulate the island’s maritime regions and its remunerative external trade. The Portuguese possessions were later seized by the Dutch. The Dutch possessions were then taken by country, WHO later extended their management over the full island, colonising it from 1815 to 1948. Resistance to country was immediate. A national movement for political independence arose within the early twentieth century; and in 1948, Ceylon became a republic, and it adopted its current name in 1972. Sri Lanka’s recent history has been marred by a 26-year warfare, that over resolutely once the country militia defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009.
Sri Lanka’s current constitution stipulates it as a republic and unitary state ruled by a semi-presidential system. it’s had an extended history of international engagement, as a innovation member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), and a member of the international organisation, the Commonwealth of states, the, and therefore the Non-Aligned Movement. country is rated “high” on the Human Development Index (HDI), with its HDI rating and per capita financial gain the very best among South Asian nations. The Sri Lankan constitution accords Buddhism the “foremost place”, though it doesn’t establish it as a state faith. Buddhism is given special privileges within the Sri Lankan constitution.
The climate is tropical and warm, due to the moderating effects of ocean winds. Mean temperatures range from 17 °C (62.6 °F) in the central highlands, where frost may occur for several days in the winter, to a maximum of 33 °C (91.4 °F) in other low-altitude areas. Average yearly temperatures range from 28 °C (82.4 °F) to nearly 31 °C (87.8 °F). Day and night temperatures may vary by 14 °C (25.2 °F) to 18 °C (32.4 °F).
Rainfall pattern is influenced by monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal. The “wet zone” and some of the windward slopes of the central highlands receive up to 2,500 millimetres (98.4 in) of rain each year, but the leeward slopes in the east and northeast receive little rain. Most of the east, southeast, and northern parts of Sri Lanka comprise the “dry zone”, which receives between 1,200 and 1,900 mm (47 and 75 in) of rain annually.
The arid northwest and southeast coasts receive the least amount of rain at 800 to 1,200 mm (31 to 47 in) per year. Periodic squalls occur and sometimes tropical cyclones bring overcast skies and rains to the southwest, northeast, and eastern parts of the island. Humidity is typically higher in the southwest and mountainous areas and depends on the seasonal patterns of rainfall.
An increase in average rainfall coupled with heavier rainfall events has resulted in recurrent flooding and related damages to infrastructure, utility supply and the urban economy.
Sri Lanka has an in depth road network for interior transportation. With over one hundred,000 km (62,000 mi) of paved roads, it’s one in all the very best road densities within the world (1.5 km or 0.93 mi of paved roads per each one km2 or zero.39 sq mi of land). E-grade highways ar the newest addition to Sri Lanka’s road network. These ar access-controlled, high-mobility roads with permissible quickens to 100 km/h (62 mph). These highways connect native communities along, by-passing busy and engorged city centres.
A and B grade roads ar national (arterial) highways administered by Road Development Authority. C and D grade roads ar provincial roads returning underneath the reach of the Provincial Road Development Authority of the several province. the opposite roads ar native roads falling underneath authorities authorities.
The rail network of state consists of main lines, coastal lines, and up-country lines. additionally, air- and water-based transportation modalities augment the interior transport of the country.